Top 10 Wind Energy Producing Country

1. China: Leading the Global Wind Energy Revolution China stands at the forefront of the global wind energy revolution with an astounding installed capacity of 221 gigawatts, solidifying its position as the world’s largest wind energy producing country. This remarkable capacity represents more than one-third of the world’s total wind power capacity, showcasing China’s unparalleled…

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Terrain classification and ground airflow

Topographical features can have such a large effect on wind turbine energy output that the economics of the entire project depend entirely on the appropriate selection of the site. In the previous article, two methods for modeling vertical wind profiles (logarithmic wind profile¬†and power exponential wind profile) were described. But these methods were developed for…

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Steady Wind: Variation of wind speed with altitude

As shown in Figure 1 (van der Tempel, 2006), the actual wind speed varies with space and time. Due to turbulence effects, the actual wind speed at any location will always vary around its average value with time and direction. Most importantly, the graph clearly shows that the average wind speed increases with height, a…

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Turbulence

Turbulence in the wind results from the continuous creation and disappearance of small eddies (or gusts), which convert the kinetic energy dissipation of the wind into thermal energy. Turbulent winds may have relatively stable averages over time spans of an hour or longer, but over shorter periods of time (minutes or less) it may vary…

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 Atmospheric lapse rate

The lapse rate of the atmosphere is usually defined as the rate of change of temperature with altitude. As shown in the analysis below, the lapse rate is easily determined by calculating the change in pressure with altitude using conventional thermodynamic relationships. If the atmosphere can be approximated as a dry ideal gas (no water…

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